This article addresses diabetes mellitus, not diabetes insipidus. Although the two share the same reference term "diabetes" which means increased urine productiondiabetes insipidus is much rarer and has a different underlying cause, human type 1 diabetes and herpes.
This causes high blood glucose levels hyperglycemia and can lead to a number of acute and chronic health problems, some of them life-threatening. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Normally, after a meal, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and other simple sugars. This causes blood glucose levels to rise and stimulates the pancreas human type 1 diabetes and herpes release insulin into the bloodstream.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. Diabetics typically have to control their blood glucose levels on a daily basis and over time to avoid health problems and complications.
Chronic high blood glucose can cause long-term damage to blood vessels, nerves, and organs throughout the body and can lead to other conditions such as kidney diseaseloss of vision, strokescardiovascular diseaseand circulatory problems in the legs. Damage from hyperglycemia is cumulative and may begin before a person is aware that he or she has diabetes.
The sooner that the condition is detected and treated, the better the chances are of minimizing long-term complications. The following table summarizes some types of diabetes. Read the sections below to learn more about the various types. The signs and symptoms of diabetes are related to high glucose levels hyperglycemiahuman type 1 diabetes and herpes, low glucose levels hypoglycemiaand complications associated with diabetes.
Type 1 diabetics are often diagnosed with acute severe symptoms that require hospitalization. With prediabetes, early type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, there usually are no signs or symptoms. Symptoms of impending hypoglycemia: Temporary hypoglycemia in the diabetic may be caused by the accidental injection of too much insulin, not eating enough or waiting too long to eat, exercising strenuously, or by the swings in glucose levels seen with "brittle" diabetes.
Hypoglycemia needs to be addressed as soon as it is noticed as it can rapidly progress to unconsciousness. Signs and symptoms include:. Complications of diabetes can be related to unhealthy lipid levelsdamage to blood vessels vascular and microvascularorgan damage such as to the kidneys diabetic nephropathyand nerve damage diabetic neuropathy.
It is important for diabetics to work closely with their health practitioners and a diabetes educator, to have regular check-ups several times a year that include monitoring tests such as urinary albumin microalbumin and A1chuman type 1 diabetes and herpes, and to get immediate attention for the complications listed above.
The goals of diabetes testing are to screen for high blood glucose levels hyperglycemiato detect and diagnose diabetes and prediabetes, to monitor and control glucose levels over time, and to detect and monitor complications. Screening for diabetes that occurs during pregnancy gestational diabetes is different than testing the general population. See human type 1 diabetes and herpes section on Gestational Diabetes for more on this.
According to the American Diabetes Association, a few different tests may be used for screening and diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes and each test has advantages, disadvantages, and limitations.
If the initial screening result from one of the tests listed below is abnormal, the test is repeated on another day, human type 1 diabetes and herpes. The repeat result must be abnormal to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes. Several other laboratory tests may be used to evaluate glucose control, organ function, and to detect emerging complications.
Most cases of type 1 diabetes are diagnosed in those under the age of Type 1 diabetics make very little or no insulin. Any insulin-producing beta cells they do have at the time of diagnosis are usually completely destroyed within 5 to 10 years, leaving them entirely reliant on insulin injections to live.
Type 1 diabetics may have more severe medical complications sooner than other diabetics. Signs and symptoms in type 1 diabetes often develop abruptly and the diagnosis is often made in an emergency room setting. The affected person may be seriously ill, even comatose, with very high glucose levels and high levels of ketones ketoacidosis and may require hospitalization.
See the section on Signs and Symptoms for more detailed information. In addition to diabetes tests listed above, used for screening, diagnosing and monitoring, a few other tests may be used in the evaluation of type 1 diabetes:. There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes, although there has been some limited success with islet beta cell transplantations as a way to potentially restore insulin production. Diabetic treatment at the time of diagnosis is somewhat different than ongoing treatment.
Type 1 diabetics are sometimes diagnosed when symptoms are acutewith very high blood glucose levels, electrolytes out of balance, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis with some degree of dehydration affecting the function of the kidneys. In a worst case scenario, a person may have become unconscious and comatose, human type 1 diabetes and herpes.
Ongoing treatment of type 1 diabetes revolves around daily glucose monitoring and control, eating a healthy planned diet, and exercising regularly, human type 1 diabetes and herpes. Type 1 diabetics must self-check their glucose levels and inject themselves with insulin several times a day. As an alternative, a number of type 1 diabetics have turned to wearing insulin pumps, programmable human type 1 diabetes and herpes that are carried at the waist and provide small amounts of insulin through a needle under the skin throughout the day to more closely match normal insulin secretion The amount and type of insulin administered must be adjusted to take into account what the person is eating, the size of their meals, and the amount of activity they are getting.
There are several types of insulin available; some are fast-acting and short-lived while others take longer to act but have a longer duration. Most type 1 diabetics use a combination of insulins to meet their needs, and maintaining control can sometimes be a challenge. Stress, illnesses, and infections can alter the amount of insulin necessary, and some type 1 diabetics have "brittle" control: As another complicating factor, type 1 diabetics may develop antibodies to insulin over time; their body begins to identify the injections as an "intruder" and works to destroy the insulin, resulting in the necessity of higher doses of insulin or of switching to a different kind.
Type 1 diabetics may also "overshoot," running into trouble with low glucose levels if they inject too much insulin, go extended periods of time without eating, or if their needs change unexpectedly. They must carry glucose with them, in the form of tablets or candy, and be ready to take some at the first signs of low blood sugar hypoglycemia. Acute conditions, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or kidney failure, may require hospitalization to resolve. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult onset diabetes.
Those affected may produce insulin, but it is either not in a sufficient amount to meet their needs or their body has become resistant to its effects. At the time of diagnosis, people with type 2 diabetes will frequently have both high glucose levels and high insulin levelsbut they may not have any symptoms. It generally occurs later in life, in those who are obese, sedentary, and over 45 years of age.
Factors associated with type 2 diabetes include:. Since Americans are becoming more obese and not getting enough regular exercise, the number of those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is continuing to rise and it is developing at younger ages. The American Diabetes Association ADA and the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommend screening for adults age 45 and older and for adults who are under 45 years of age who are overweight and have any additional risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
The ADA also recommends that children who are overweight and have two or more risk factors should be considered for diabetes screening. People with type 2 diabetes may or may not have any noticeable signs or symptoms at the time of diagnosis.
The signs and symptoms may be subtle at first and then worsen if the condition is not diagnosed and treated. See the section on Signs and Symptoms for detailed descriptions. In addition to diabetes tests listed above, used for screening, diagnosing and monitoring, a few other tests may be used in human type 1 diabetes and herpes evaluation of type 2 diabetes:.
Human type 1 diabetes and herpes risk of having type 2 diabetes can be greatly decreased by losing excess weight, exercising, and eating a healthy diet with limited fat intake. By identifying pre-diabetic conditions and making the necessary lifestyle changes to lower glucose levels to normal levels, it may be possible to prevent type 2 diabetes or delay its onset by several years. Normalizing blood glucose can also minimize or prevent damage to veins, arteries and kidneys.
Type 2 diabetics usually self-check their glucose one or more times a day. Type 2 diabetics are on a continuum, ranging from those who can control their glucose levels with diet and exercise, to those who can take oral medications, to those who need to take daily insulin injections.
Many will move along the continuum as their disease progresses. Type 2 diabetics may occasionally encounter serious complications if they have ignored initial symptoms, if they have neglected their ongoing treatment, or if they have a serious stress to their system such as a heart attack or stroke or a severe infection. The effects of very high blood glucose levels and dehydration can be cumulative, leading to weakness, confusion, and in severe cases, to convulsions and coma that require immediate hospitalization, human type 1 diabetes and herpes.
Gestational diabetesis a form of high blood glucose hyperglycemia seen human type 1 diabetes and herpes some pregnant women, usually late in their pregnancy. The cause is unknown, but it is thought that some hormones from the placenta increase insulin resistance in the mother, causing elevated blood glucose levels.
Those at an increased risk include women who:. Most women are screened for gestational diabetes between their 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. If gestational diabetes is found and not addressed, the baby is likely to be larger than normal, be born with low glucose levels, and be born prematurely. It can also cause complications such as high blood pressure and pre-eclampsia in the pregnant woman.
A woman who has gestational diabetes with one pregnancy will frequently experience it with subsequent pregnancies.
Signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes correspond to those of diabetes in general see the section on Signs and Symptoms. Some women with gestational diabetes may not have any noticeable symptoms and may be unaware that they have developed the condition.
Most professional organizations recommend screening pregnant women for gestational diabetes with a blood test at weeks of pregnancy. The American Diabetes Association recommends that pregnant women not previously known to have diabetes be screened and diagnosed, using either a one-step or two-step approach. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends the two-step approach, human type 1 diabetes and herpes. Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes should be tested at weeks after they have delivered their baby to screen for persistent diabetes.
This can be done with one of the following:. With gestational diabetes, the mother-to-be feminine deoderant products and cancer human type 1 diabetes and herpes to eat a modified diet, get regular exercise, and monitor glucose levels as often as her health practitioner suggests.
If more control is needed, she will be given insulin injections. At this time, oral medications are not commonly used. Usually, the diabetic state resolves after the birth of the baby, although human type 1 diabetes and herpes woman remains at a higher risk of becoming a type 2 diabetic and she should be carefully monitored with any subsequent pregnancies.
Right after birth, her baby will be monitored for signs of low blood glucose hypoglycemia and for any trouble breathing respiratory distress.
Prediabetes, often referred to as impaired fasting glucose IFG or impaired glucose tolerance IGTis characterized by glucose levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnostic of diabetes. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that an estimated 86 million adults in the U. Usually those who have prediabetes do not have any symptoms but if nothing is done to lower their glucose levelsthey are at an increased risk of developing diabetes within about 10 years.
The American Diabetes Association ADA and the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommend diabetes screening for adults age 45 and older and for adults who are under 45 years of age, overweight, and have any additional risk factors for type 2 diabetes. If prediabetes is detected, then yearly follow-up testing is recommended. Screening and diagnostic tests are the same as those used for type 2 diabetes see the Tests section.
Monitoring is not generally indicated, but the ADA recommends that people with prediabetes be screened for the development of diabetes on a yearly basis. The primary focus of treatment for prediabetes and prevention of progression to type 2 diabetes is lifestyle changes. Weight loss, eating a healthy diet, and regular physical activity can help prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes and reduce blood glucose levels.