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Link between obesity and diabetes

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intakelack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices.

Obesity is a link between obesity and diabetes preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, link between obesity and diabetes.

BMI is usually expressed in kilograms of weight per metre squared of height. The most commonly used definitions, established by the World Health Organization WHO in and published inprovide the values listed in the table. Some modifications to the WHO definitions have been made by particular organizations.

Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditionsparticularly cardiovascular diseasesdiabetes mellitus type 2obstructive sleep apneacertain types of cancerosteoarthritis[2] and asthma. Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of link between obesity and diabetes worldwide.

Obesity increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions. These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome[2] a combination of medical disorders which includes: Complications are either directly caused by obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle.

The strength of the link between obesity and specific conditions varies. One of the strongest is the link with type 2 diabetes. Health consequences fall into two broad categories: Increased fat also creates a proinflammatory state[50] [51] and a prothrombotic state. Although the negative health consequences of obesity in the general population are well supported by the available evidence, health outcomes in certain subgroups seem to be improved at an increased BMI, a phenomenon known as the obesity survival paradox.

In people with heart failure, those with a BMI between This has been attributed to the fact that people often lose weight as they become progressively more ill.

People with class I obesity and heart disease do not have greater rates of further heart problems than people of normal weight who also have heart link between obesity and diabetes. In people with greater degrees of obesity, however, the risk of further cardiovascular events is increased. At an individual level, a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity. A review identified ten other possible contributors to the recent increase of obesity: A review supported excess food as the primary factor.

It has also changed significantly over time. The widespread availability of nutritional guidelines [90] has done little to address the problems of overeating and poor dietary choice, link between obesity and diabetes. Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption. As prostate cancer and flaxseed oil become increasingly reliant on energy-densebig-portions, and fast-food meals, the association between fast-food consumption and obesity becomes more concerning.

Agricultural policy and techniques in the United States and Europe have led to lower food prices. In the United States, subsidization of corn, soy, link between obesity and diabetes, wheat, and rice through the U.

Obese people consistently under-report their link between obesity and diabetes consumption as compared to people of normal weight, link between obesity and diabetes. A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland [] found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has link between obesity and diabetes changed significantly.

In both children and adults, there is an association between television viewing time and the risk of link between obesity and diabetes. Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of an interplay between genetic and environmental factors.

As ofmore than 41 of these sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity when a favorable environment is present. The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to exclude these conditions. The thrifty gene hypothesis postulates that, due to dietary scarcity during human evolution, link between obesity and diabetes, people are prone to obesity.

Their ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance by storing energy as fat would be advantageous during times of varying food availability, link between obesity and diabetes, and individuals with greater adipose reserves would be more likely to survive famine.

This tendency to store fat, however, would be maladaptive in societies with stable food supplies. Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase risk of obesity. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes listed above as well as some congenital or acquired conditions: Certain medications may cause weight gain or changes in body composition ; these include insulinsulfonylureaslink between obesity and diabetes, thiazolidinedionesatypical antipsychoticsantidepressantssteroidscertain anticonvulsants phenytoin and valproatepizotifenand some forms of hormonal contraception.

While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors. The correlation between social class and BMI varies globally. A review in found that in developed countries women of a high social class were less likely to be obese.

No significant differences were seen among men of different social classes. In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity. The decrease in strength of correlation was felt to be due to the effects of globalization. A similar relationship is seen among US states: Many explanations have been put forth for associations between BMI and social class.

It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness. In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns.

A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4. In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity. In the developing world urbanization is playing a role in increasing rate of obesity. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing link between obesity and diabetes. Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits.

The study of the effect of infectious agents on link between obesity and diabetes is still in its early stages. Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential. This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity. Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally.

An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined.

Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese. There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity. In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamusa region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.

The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin.

Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity. The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health. Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity.

Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children, [] and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools. Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children. Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise.

In the link between obesity and diabetes low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistatlorcaserinliraglutidephentermine—topiramateand naltrexone—bupropion. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health. But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern periodit affected increasingly larger groups of the population.

In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, guide to using vitamins and minerals rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world. Obesity is from the Latin obesitaswhich means "stout, fat, or plump".

Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, link between obesity and diabetes, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance [] as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations.

With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers. During the 20th century, novartis and diovan and film coat populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity.

Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the osteoporisis and diabetes of hemp seed and cholesterol character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy pregnacy and rheumatoid arthritis a glutton and figure of mockery.

During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust, link between obesity and diabetes. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, link between obesity and diabetes, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers. The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s.

 

Link between obesity and diabetes

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