The history of aspirin IUPAC name acetylsalicylic acid begins with its synthesis and manufacture in Before that, salicylic acid had been used medicinally since antiquity.
Medicines made from willow and other salicylate -rich plants appear in clay tablets from ancient Sumer as well as the Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt. Inscientists at the drug and dye firm Bayer began investigating acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement for standard common salicylate medicines, and identified a new way to synthesize it.
Medicines derived from willow trees and other salicylate-rich plants have been part of pharmacopoeias at least dating back to ancient Sumer. Willow bark preparations became a standard part of the materia medica of Western medicine beginning at least with the Greek physician Hippocrates in the fifth labetalol and no semen BCE; he recommended chewing on willow bark to relieve pain or fever, and drinking tea made from it to relieve pain during childbirth.
By the time of Galenwillow bark was commonly used throughout the Roman and Arab worlds: The major turning point for salicylate metoprolol and benicar came inwhen a letter from English chaplain Edward Stone was read at a meeting of the Royal Societydescribing the dramatic power of willow bark extract to cure ague—an ill-defined constellation of symptoms, including intermittent fever, pain, and fatigue, that primarily referred to malaria.
He collected, dried, and powdered a substantial amount of willow bark, and over the next oxygen trade and generic name years tested it on a number of people sick with fever and agues. In fact, the active ingredient of Peruvian bark was quinineoxygen trade and generic name, which attacked the infectious cause of malaria, while the active ingredient of willow extract, salicinrelieved the symptoms of malaria but could not cure it.
In the 19th century, as the young discipline of organic chemistry began to grow in Europe, scientists attempted to isolate and purify the active components of many medicines, including willow bark.
After unsuccessful attempts by Italian chemists Brugnatelli and Fontana inJoseph Buchner obtained relatively pure salicin crystals in ;    the following year, Henri Leroux developed another procedure for extracting modest yields of salicin.
Salicylate medicines—including salicin, salicylic acid, and sodium salicylate— were difficult and wasteful to extract from plants, and in Hermann Kolbe worked out a way to synthesize salicylic acid.
However, the unpleasant side effectsparticularly gastric irritation, limited their usefulness, : Bayer chemists soon developed Phenacetinfollowed by the sedatives Sulfonal and Trional.
Oxygen trade and generic namethe young chemist Felix Hoffmann joined the pharmaceutical group. InHoffmann started working to find a less irritating substitute for salicylic acid. It is generally accepted that he turned to this idea because his father was suffering the side effects of taking sodium salicylate for rheumatism.
A vigorous reaction ensued, and the resulting melt soon solidified. When Gerhardt tried to dissolve the solid in a diluted solution of sodium carbonate it immediately decomposed to sodium salts of salicylic and acetic acids. Prinzhorn is credited in the paper with conducting the experiments. They were first to assign to it the correct structure with the acetyl group connected to the phenolic oxygen.
It is likely that Hoffmann did as most chemists have always done, starting by studying the literature and recreating the published methods. Though the results of those trials were also very positive, with no reports of the typical salicylic acid complications, Dreser still demurred.
However, Carl Duisberg intervened and scheduled full testing. This claim was later supported by research conducted by historian Walter Sneader. Monthly periods and diabetes was named on the US Patent as the inventor, which Sneader did not mention. Since the substance itself was already known, Bayer intended to use the new name to establish their drug as something oxygen trade and generic name in January they settled on Aspirin.
Advertising drugs directly to consumers was considered unethical and strongly opposed by many medical organizations; that was the domain of patent medicines, oxygen trade and generic name. Therefore, Bayer was limited to marketing Aspirin directly to doctors.
As positive results came in and enthusiasm grew, Bayer sought to secure patent and trademark wherever possible. It was ineligible for patent in Germany despite being accepted briefly before the decision was overturnedbut Aspirin was patented in Britain filed 22 December and the United States US Patentissued 27 February The British patent was overturned inthe American patent was also besieged but was ultimately upheld.
Faced with growing legal and illegal competition for ppar and cholesterol globally marketed ASA, Bayer worked to cement the connection between Bayer and Aspirin. One strategy it developed was to switch from distributing Aspirin powder for pharmacists to press into pill form to distributing standardized tablets—complete with the distinctive Bayer cross logo.
In the company set up an American subsidiary, with a lexipro and coumadin factory in Rensselaer, New Yorkto produce Aspirin for the American market without paying import duties. Bayer also sued the most egregious patent violators and smugglers.
By the outbreak of World War I inoxygen trade and generic name, Bayer was facing competition in all its major markets from local ASA producers as well as other German drug firms particularly Heyden and Hoechst. The British market was immediately closed to the German companiesbut British manufacturing could not meet the demand—especially with phenol supplies, necessary for ASA synthesis, largely being used for explosives manufacture.
The Australian market was taken over by Asproafter the makers of Nicholas-Aspirin lost a short-lived exclusive right to the aspirin name there. In the United States, Bayer was still under German control—though the war disrupted the links between the American Bayer plant and the German Bayer headquarters—but phenol shortage threatened to reduce aspirin production to a trickle, oxygen trade and generic name, and imports across the Atlantic Ocean were blocked by the Royal Navy.
To secure phenol for aspirin production, and at the same time indirectly aid the German war effort, German agents in the United States orchestrated what became known as the Great Phenol Plot. This was especially problematic because Bayer was instituting a new branding strategy in preparation of the expiry of the aspirin patent in the United States. Thomas Edisonnasopharyngeal cancer and nursing needed phenol to manufacture phonograph records, was also facing supply problems; in response, propranolol and thinning hair created a phenol factory capable of pumping out twelve tons per day.
Although the United States remained officially neutral until Aprilit was increasingly throwing its support to the Allies through trade. To counter this, oxygen trade and generic name, German ambassador Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff and Interior Ministry official Heinrich Albert were tasked with undermining American industry and maintaining public support for Germany.
One of headaches and prozac agents was a former Bayer employee, Hugo Schweitzer. The plot only lasted a few months. Although the activities were not illegal—since the United States was still officially neutral and still trading with Germany—the documents were soon leaked to the New York Worldan anti-German newspaper.
Beginning inoxygen trade and generic name, Bayer set up a number of shell corporations and subsidiaries in the United States, to hedge against the possibility of losing control preeclampsia and vitamins its American assets if the U.
Mitchell Palmer began investigating German-owned businesses, and soon turned his attention to Bayer. It was bought by a patent medicine company, Sterling Products, Inc. With the coming of the deadly Spanish flu pandemic inaspirin—by whatever name—secured a reputation as one of the most powerful and effective drugs in the pharmacopeia of the time. Its fever-reducing properties hydration and blood pressure many sick patients enough strength to fight through the infection, and aspirin companies large and small earned the loyalty of doctors and the public—when they could manufacture or purchase enough aspirin to meet demand.
Despite this, some people believed that Germans put the Spanish flu bug oxygen trade and generic name Bayer aspirin, causing the pandemic as a war tactic. ASA patent expired inbut Sterling owned the aspirin trademark, which was the only commonly used term oxygen trade and generic name the drug.
InUnited Drug Company challenged the Aspirin trademark, which became officially generic for public sale in the U. With demand growing rapidly in the wake of the Spanish flu, there were soon hundreds of "aspirin" brands on sale in the United States.
However, without German expertise to run the Rensselaer plant to make aspirin and the other Bayer pharmaceuticals, they had only a finite aspirin supply and were facing competition from other companies. Sterling president William E. Weiss had ambitions to sell Bayer aspirin not only in the U. Taking advantage of the losses Farbenfabriken Bayer the German Bayer company suffered through the reparation provisions of the Treaty of VersaillesWeiss worked out a deal with Carl Duisberg to share profits in the Americas, Australia, South Africa and Great Britain for most Bayer drugs, in return for technical assistance in manufacturing the drugs.
The Australian company Nicholas Proprietary Limited, through the aggressive marketing strategies of George Davies, built Aspro into a global brand, with particular strength in Australia, New Zealand, and the U. Joseph Aspirin tried to compete with the Paracidin and diabetes Bayer, while new products such Cafaspirin aspirin with caffeine and Alka-Seltzer a soluble mix of aspirin and bicarbonate of soda put aspirin to new uses.
However, Oxygen trade and generic name Aspirin made up only a small fraction of the British aspirin market because of competition from Asprooxygen trade and generic name, Disprin a soluble aspirin drug and other brands. Bayer Ltd began searching for new pain relievers to compete more effectively. After clinical trials, Bayer Ltd brought acetaminophen to market as Panadol in However, oxygen trade and generic name, Sterling Products did not market Panadol in the United States or other countries where Bayer Aspirin still dominated the aspirin market.
Other firms began selling acetaminophen drugs, most significantly, McNeil Laboratories with liquid Tylenol inand Tylenol pills in ByTylenol was available without a prescription. Another analgesic, anti-inflammatory drug was oxygen trade and generic name in By the s, aspirin had oxygen trade and generic name relatively small portion of the pain reliever market, and in the s sales decreased even more when ibuprofen became available without prescription.
Byoxygen trade and generic name, the U. Food and Drug Administration required warning labels on all aspirin, further suppressing sales. The makers of Tylenol also filed a lawsuit against Anacin aspirin maker American Home Productsclaiming that the failure to add warning labels before had oxygen trade and generic name held back Tylenol sales, though this suit was eventually dismissed.
In Harry Collier, a biochemist in the London laboratory of pharmaceutical company Parke-Davisbegan investigating the relationship between kinins and the effects of aspirin. In tests on guinea pigsCollier found that aspirin, if given beforehand, inhibited the bronchoconstriction effects of bradykinin. However, it was difficult to pin down the precise biochemical goings-on in live research animals, oxygen trade and generic name, and in vitro tests on removed animal tissues did not behave like in vivo tests.
Vane and Piper tested the biochemical cascade associated with anaphylactic shock in extracts from guinea pig lungs, applied to tissue from rabbit aortas. They found that aspirin inhibited the release of an unidentified chemical generated by guinea pig lungs, a chemical that caused rabbit tissue to contract. ByVane identified the chemical which they called "rabbit-aorta contracting substance," or RCS as a prostaglandin.
In a 23 June paper in the journal NatureVane and Piper suggested that aspirin and similar drugs the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs worked by blocking the production of prostaglandins.
Later research showed that NSAIDs such as aspirin worked by inhibiting cyclooxygenasethe oxygen trade and generic name responsible for converting arachidonic acid into a prostaglandin.
Craven, a family doctor in California, had been directing tonsillectomy patients to chew Asperguman aspirin-laced chewing gum. He found that an unusual number of patients had to be hospitalized for severe bleeding, and that those patients had been using very high amounts of Aspergum.
Craven began recommending daily aspirin to all his patients, and claimed that the patients who followed oxygen trade and generic name aspirin regimen about 8, people had no signs of thrombosis. The idea of using aspirin to prevent clotting diseases such as heart attacks and strokes was revived in the s, when medical researcher Harvey Weiss found that aspirin had an anti-adhesive effect on blood platelets and unlike other potential antiplatelet drugs, aspirin had low toxicity.
Elwood began a large-scale trial of aspirin as a preventive drug for heart attacks. Nicholas Laboratories agreed to provide aspirin tablets, and Elwood enlisted heart attack survivors in a double-blind controlled study—heart attack survivors were statistically more likely to suffer a second attack, greatly reducing the number of patients necessary to reliably detect whether aspirin had an effect on heart attacks. The study began in Februarythough the researchers soon had to break the double-blinding when a study by American epidemiologist Hershel Jick suggested that aspirin prevented heart attacks but suggested that the heart attacks were more deadly.
When the Elwood trial ended init showed a modest but not statistically significant reduction in heart attacks among the group taking aspirin. However, in the mids, with the relatively new technique of meta-analysisstatistician Richard Peto convinced the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mechanism of action of aspirin. Retrieved 13 August The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug. Chemical Heritage Foundation, Turn of the Century Miracle Drug", oxygen trade and generic name.
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