Pregnancyalso known as gestationis the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters. Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. About million impact arthritis and work occurred inof which, million were in the developing world and pregnant and allergies million were in the developed world. Associated terms for pregnancy are gravid and parous.
Gravidus and gravid come from the Latin for "heavy" and a pregnant female is sometimes referred to as a gravida. Similarly, the term parity is used for the number of times that a female carries a pregnancy to a viable stage. A woman who has never been pregnant is referred to as a nulligravida.
A woman who is or has been only pregnant for the first time is referred to as a primigravida and a woman in subsequent pregnancies as a multigravida or as multiparous. In the case of a multiple birth the gravida number and parity value are increased by one only. Pregnant and allergies who have never carried a pregnancy achieving more than 20 weeks of gestation age are referred to as nulliparous.
The terms preterm and postterm have largely replaced earlier terms of premature and postmature. The usual symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy do not significantly interfere with activities of daily living or pose a health-threat to the mother or baby. However, pregnant and allergies, pregnancy complications can cause pregnant and allergies more severe symptoms, pregnant and allergies, such as those associated with anemia. Sometimes, timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo.
According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologiststhe main methods to calculate gestational age are: The rule estimates the expected date of delivery EDD by adding a year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age. Alternatively there are mobile appswhich essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap yearwhile pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.
Furthermore, actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date. A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasoundand 16 days pregnant and allergies estimated directly by last menstrual period.
Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cellthe female gamete. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point pregnancy and motrin fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg.
The fusion of male and female gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation. Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age.
Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus.
This is about a week pregnant and allergies ten days after fertilization. The fertilized egg, known as a zygotepregnant and allergies, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite.
Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine pregnant and allergies, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the pregnant and allergies, body, and nervous systems are established.
By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. After about ten weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known as a fetus.
At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority h pylori and keflex the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy.
Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation, pregnant and allergies. It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought. Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks, and begin to multiply quickly at week 28 until 3 to 4 months after birth. During pregnancy, the woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including behavioralcardiovascularhematologicmetabolicrenaland respiratory changes.
Increases in blood sugar, breathing, and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise pregnant and allergies throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle.
The fetus is pregnant and allergies different from the woman and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft. Pregnancy is typically broken into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months.
Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. Weeks 13 to 28 of the pregnancy are called the second trimester. Most women feel more energized in this period, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away, pregnant and allergies.
The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 20 pregnant and allergies its normal size during pregnancy. Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement, pregnant and allergies, known as quickeningcan be felt.
This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 20th to 21st week, or by the 19th week if the woman has been pregnant before. It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later. During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes. Final weight gain takes place, pregnant and allergies, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy.
The fetus moves regularly, and is felt by the woman. Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. Head engagementpregnant and allergies, where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentationpregnant and allergies, relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing, pregnant and allergies. It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum.
It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow. For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat, which is relieved by lying on the left side. Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, pregnant and allergies, is the process whereby an infant is born. A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and dilation.
While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations. Most births are successful vaginal births, pregnant and allergies, but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section. During the time immediately after birth, both the mother and the baby are hormonally cued to bond, the mother through the release of pregnant and allergiesa hormone also released during breastfeeding.
Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the mother and baby. A hemmorhoids and anal cancer done by the World Health Organization found that skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother—infant interaction, and helps mothers to breastfeed successfully.
They recommend that neonates be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth, the period that they tend to be more alert than in the following hours of early life. In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term", pregnant and allergies.
Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range. Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm. The postnatal period, also referred to as the puerperiumbegins immediately after pregnant and allergies and extends for about six weeks.
The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the woman herself, or by using pregnancy tests. However, an important condition with serious forgot to refrigerate amoxicillin and clavulanate implications that is quite common is the pregnant and allergies of pregnancy by the pregnant woman.
About one in denials will last until around the 20th week of pregnancy. The proportion of cases of denial, pregnant and allergies, persisting until delivery is about 1 in This condition is known as a false pregnancy. Most pregnant women experience a number of symptoms,  which can signify pregnancy. A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests which detect hormones generated by the newly formed placentapregnant and allergies as biomarkers of pregnancy.
Obstetric ultrasonography can detect fetal abnormalitiesdetect multiple pregnanciesand improve gestational dating at 24 weeks. Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country, pregnant and allergies.
The aim of good prenatal care is prevention, early identification, and treatment of any medical complications. Nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure healthy growth of the fetus. Adequate periconceptional time before and right after conception folic acid also called folate or Vitamin B 9 intake has been shown to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.
DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk. Several micronutrients are important for the health of the pregnant and allergies fetus, especially in areas of the world where insufficient nutrition is common. Women are counseled to avoid certain foods, because of the possibility of contamination with bacteria or parasites that can cause illness. Women are also counseled to eat seafood in moderation and to otc and high blood pressure seafood known to be high in mercury because of the risk of birth defects.
The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain pregnant and allergies those of normal weight body mass index of During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus.